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Case Studies

Enspired Solutions’ PFAS Reductive Defluorination at Work

In June 2023, we completed a successful field test of PFAS destruction in landfill leachate using our unique photo-activated reductive defluorination (PRD) chemistry at a site in Michigan. In the time-series graph below, you can observe the following outcomes: 

  1. Initial concentrations of each PFAS decreased over the duration of the experiment by up to 2 orders of magnitude.
  2. Degradation occurred in a complex matrix (landfill leachate) over a wide range of PFAS compounds, including long-chains, short-chains, fluorotelomers, and perfluoroalkane sulfonamide acetic acids. 
  3. Extremely rapid degradation occurred for PFOS and other perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) compounds.
  4.  Intermediate increases in perfluorinated carboxylic acid concentrations over time illustrate the systematic disassembly of the PFAS carbon chain one C-F group at a time. Those intermediate increases in PFAS concentrations subsequently decrease as the shorter chains are also disassembled. 
  5. Reaction duration can be adjusted to achieve site-specific remediation targets while maximizing energy efficiency. 

Notes: *Analytical interference, no results reported; Empty bars indicate non-detect; Compounds analyzed for but not detected at any sampling point include PFDS, PFNS, 11Cl-PF3Ouds, HFPO-DA (GenX), ADONA.